Study Guide for Statewide APHY101 Online Midterm Exam
(Study Guide , Ivy Tech Community College, East Central Region)
NOTE: The midterm exam will pull:
40 questions from Chapters 1, 2, and 3 combined,
16 questions from Ch. 4,
19 questions from Ch. 5, &
25 questions from Ch. 6.
• Explain the difference between the study of Anatomy and the study of Physiology? • Name and define the levels of organization of life?
• Define metabolism.
• Define homeostasis? How does a homeostatic mechanism maintain homeostasis? • What is meant by negative feedback? How does negative feedback affect homeostatic mechanisms? • Know the locations of the major body cavities. Be familiar with major organs within each cavity. • Describe the structure of a serous membrane?
• (Referring to section 7) What are signs of aging at the cellular level? • What is meant by Anatomical Position?
• *Know the meaning of the common anatomical terms presented in the textbook for relative position (such as medial vs. lateral, proximal vs. distal, etc.).
• Explain why Chemistry is an important part of the study of Physiology. • Define atom, element, molecule, and compound.
• Name the bulk elements of the human body.
• What do Atomic Number and Atomic Weight of an atom represent? • Define ion? How do we indicate in a molecular formula if an atom is an ion? • Define isotope?
• Distinguish between types of Chemical Reactions: Synthesis, Decomposition, Exchange, & Reversible. • Define electrolyte.
• Define Acid, Base, and Neutral compound. How are acids and bases represented on the pH scale? How do hydrogen ion concentrations change as the numbers change? • What is Acidosis? Alkalosis?
• What distinguishes an Organic compound from an Inorganic compound? • *Give Examples and Characteristics of the 4 types of Organic Molecules. Reference Table 2.8. • What is the difference between a saturated and an unsaturated fat? • How are the levels (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary) of structure of a protein created?
• What are the major parts of a cell? What are organelles? • *For the Organelles described in the textbook - know structure and function. Reference Table 3.2. • Describe the basic structure of the cell/plasma membrane. • What is meant by a “selectively permeable membrane?” • Define hydrophobic and hydrophilic.
• *Describe the passive processes for transport of molecules through the cell membrane (simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, filtration) and the active processes (active transport, endocytosis – including pinocytosis & phagocytosis & receptor-mediated, exocytosis, transcytosis) Reference Table 3.3 •
• What is the meaning of Hypertonic, Hypotonic, Isotonic? Predict what will happen to a cell placed in each of these 3 types of solutions. • How does the number of solute particles affect osmotic pressure? • *What are the phases, and the order of the phases of the Cell Cycle? Describe the major cellular events that occur during Interpahse, the phases of Mitosis, and Cytokinesis. Reference Figure 3.35 & Table 3.4 • What is meant by Cell Differentiation?
• What is a tumor? What is the difference between a benign and a malignant(cancerous) tumor? • What is a Stem cell? Progenitor cell? What is the difference between cells that are totipotent versus cells that are pluripotent?
• Define metabolism.
• Define anabolism and catabolism – give examples of each. • Explain the process/purpose of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions. • What type of organic molecule are enzymes? What general function do enzymes have in the body? What is the role of enzymes in metabolism? Describe how (on a molecular level) enzymes perform their function. • What are Cofactors? Coenzymes? How are...
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