Psychology Reflective Journal

Topics: Psychology, Nature versus nurture, Human nature Pages: 12 (3228 words) Published: October 30, 2012
Date: 18/09/2012 Tuesday
Aspect caused
Most important things

What I have done
What I have learnt
How I found the lesson

Introduction to psychology
Perspectives of psychology

What we can learn
In the first unit, we’ll explore the goals of psychology, the major approaches that are used to understand behavior and answer questions, the historical roots of psychology, current research areas, and possible careers in the broad field of psychology. We want to know, how is human behaviour “working”, how we can remember and on turn why we forget? My position as a student studying social studies makes this an important issue for me. There is very close connection and co-operate to other subjects as sociology, politics and our work in care sector. I would say, that psychology is somewhere in the middle. As a care worker, study of psychology can help me better understand and empathize to client’s behaviour with different levels of dementia. What do psychologists study?

First lesson has been presented idea of psychology; basic views and definitions. What does psychology mean? How can we explain the psychology as subject or science? First think is the study of people’s mind, knowledge of behaviour. According to British Psychological Society, usually definition is ‘the scientific study of behaviour’. Psychology is the systematic, scientific study of behaviours and mental processes. There are some views in psychology. We can speak about several ‘perspectives’; points of view, stances for academically arguing and theoretical approach: * Biological – e.g. doctor, nurse

* Cognitive – e.g. teacher, early years practitioner
* Evolutionary – “where we come from”, our evolution from ‘caveman’ * Social psychology – e.g. social/care worker, what about we thinking * Humanist psychology – e.g. therapist, what about human wishing Therefore we can speak about schools and theories:

* Psychodynamic approach
* Behaviourist approach
* Cognitive
* Humanistic
* Social Psychology
* Social Constructionist
* Evolutionary approach
This is first view inside the psychology, how wide is field of psychology. We can find many applications of psychology in our life, e.g. clinical, counselling, educational, forensic, health, occupational and sports psychology. Psychology can help to us understand many answers of basic questions about our behaviour, how people feeling and thinking, what can we remember and why. This difference forced me to reflect on the aims of this course—how communication skills are not generic, but differ according to time and place.

Date: 24/09/2012 Tuesday
Aims:Nature vs. Nurture

Nature- nature view of humans and their behaviour,
- knowledge of instincts
- essentially biological

Nurture- we learn our behaviour from others
- collective impact of all environmental factors that affect growth and behaviour (Penguin Dictionary of Psychology)

Naturist research:
* Freud - much of our behaviour is instinctual
* Rain - brain abnormalities may contribute
* Dement & Kleitman - sleep & dreams are biologically driven * Gould - intelligence was inherited
* Sperry - how we process information

Nurturist Research:
* Milgram (Ps were obedient to an authority figure).
* Zimbardo (Ps had learned over their life what prison guards and prisoners behave like - what their social roles consist of. They were therefore in a position to fulfil that role when they were assigned to one of those groups). * Piliavin (the situation we are in and the presence, or absence, of others influences our pro-social/altruistic behaviour). * Tajfel (being the member of a group influences us to behave in a discriminatory way). * Rosenhan (only the situation determines whether we are viewed as insane or not) * Gardner & Gardner (we learn language and therefore so can a chimp, rather than there being a biological basis to language development). *...

Bibliography: (selected works)
(1891) On Aphasia 1891. London and New York, 1953.
(1893) On the Psychical Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena. [with J. Breuer] SE 2, 3-17
(1894)  The Neuro-Psychoses of Defence. SE 3, 43-61
(1895)  A Project for a Scientific Psychology. SE 1, 283-397
(1895) Studies on Hysteria. [with J
(1896)  The Aetiology of Hysteria. SE 3, 189-221
(1898)  Sexuality in the Aetiology of the Neuroses
(1899)  Screen Memories. SE 3, 301-322
(1900)  The Interpretation of Dreams. SE 4-5
(1901)  On Dreams. SE 5, 633-685
(1904)  The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. SE 6
(1905)  Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious. SE 8
(1905)  Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. SE 7, 125-245
(1907)  Delusions and Dreams in Jensen 's Gradiva. SE 9, 3-95
(1908)  The Sexual Enlightenment of Children. SE 9, 131-139
(1908)  Character and Anal Erotism. SE 9, 169-175
(1908)  On the Sexual Theories of Children. SE 9, 207-226
(1908)  "Civilized" Sexual Morality and Modern Nervous Illness. SE  9, 179-204
(1908)  Creative Writers and Day-Dreaming. SE 9, 143-153
(1909)  Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy. SE 10, 3-149
(1909) Notes upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis
(1910)  - Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. SE 11, 3-55
(1910)  Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of his Childhood.SE 11,  59-137
(1910) The Antithetical Meaning of Primal Words.i SE 11, 155-161
(1910) A Special Type of Choice of Object made by Men
(1911) Psycho-Analytic Notes on an Autobiographical Account of a Case of Paranoia (Dementia Paranoides). SE 12, 3-82
(1912) On the Universal Tendency to Debasement in the Sphere of  Love. SE 11, 179-190
(1913) Totem and Taboo. SE 13, 1-161
(1914) The Moses of Michelangelo. SE 13, 211-238
(1914) On the History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement. SE 14, 3-66
(1915) Thoughts for the Times on War and Death
(1915) Instincts and their Vicissitudes. SE 14, 111-140
(1915) Repression. SE 14, 143-158
(1915) The Unconscious. SE 14, 161-215
(1916-17) Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis
(1917) Mourning and Melancholia. SE 14, 239-258
(1919) The Uncanny. SE 17, 219-256
(1920) The Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman. SE  18, 147-172
(1920) Beyond the Pleasure Principle. SE 18, 7-64
(1921) Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. SE 18, 67-143
(1923) The Ego and the Id. SE 19, 3-66
(1923) A Seventeenth-Century Demonological Neurosis. SE 19, 69-105
(1924) The Economic Problem of Masochism. SE 19, 157-170
(1925) A Note upon the "Mystic Writing-Pad". SE 19, 227-232
(1925) An Autobiographical Study. SE 20, 3-70
(1925) Negation. SE 19, 235-239
(1925) Some Psychical Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction between   the Sexes. SE 19, 243-258
(1926) Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety. SE 20, 77-174
(1926) The Question of Lay Analysis. SE 20, 179-258
(1927) The Future of an Illusion. SE 21, 3-56
(1928) Dostoevsky and Parricide. SE 21, 175-196
(1930) Civilization and its Discontents. SE 21, 59-145
(1931) Libidinal Types. SE 21, 217-220
(1931) Female Sexuality. SE 21, 223-243
(1933) New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis
(1933) Why War? SE 22, 197-215
(1936) A Disturbance of Memory on the Acropolis
(1937) Analysis Terminable and Interminable. SE 23, 211-253
(1937) Constructions in Analysis. SE 23, 257-269
(1938) An Outline of Psycho-Analysis. SE 23, 141-207
(1938) Some Elementary Lessons in Psycho-Analysis. SE 23, 281-286
(1939) Moses and Monotheism. SE 23, 3-137
Date: 09/10/2012
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