INTRODUCTION TO COUNSELING
Definition of counseling:
Counseling as a process: The counseling as a process is a continuous, cyclical model in which the counselor and client collaboratively set goals, formulate actions plans, and assess progress toward the goal(s). Throughout the process new information is integrated, the counselor-client relationship is developed, and progress toward counseling goals is reassessed. The counselor must develop an overall awareness of the entire counseling process across a number of interviews. In consultation with the supervisor, students will be asked to approach the model presented here by concentrating on particular points in the model during each semester, and relating these to the overall process. Counseling is a process in which clients learn how to make decisions and formulate new ways of behaving, feeling, and thinking. Counselors focus on the goals their clients wish to achieve. Clients explore their present levels of functioning and the changes that must be made to achieve personal objectives. Thus, counseling involves both choice and change, evolving through distinct stages such as exploration, goal setting, and action (Brammer, 1993; Egan, 1990 )
Counseling as exploration:
Counseling as exploration involves listening and prompting. A counselor will be supportive but give little or no direct advice, since the aim is to help the individual to develop insights into their own problems .The exploration involves the following stages with a client 1. Counselor structures the initial interview, helping the client to define problem(s), and develops initial hypotheses. This format is continued to some extent in each interview, 1. Counselor demonstrates care and strives to develop a trusting collaborative relationship with the client. 3. Counselor tests hypotheses; develops an interaction between problem definition and information elicited from client. 4.Counselor and client seek new information: includes additional testing, campus and community resources, career information and opportunities, college bulletins and psycho educational materials. 5. Counselor and client make decisions about desired behavior change. 6. Counselor helps client to set goals and behavioral objectives for behavior change. 7. Counselor assists client in developing plan of action to resolve problem and reach objectives. 8. Counselor is aware of and communicates own expectations of the counseling process to the client. 9. Counselor is able to appropriately terminate an individual interview, including a summary of important information gathered and agreed upon action plan for client. 10. Counselor and client assess procedure and outcome(s) of counseling and decide to: a. terminate
b. refine counseling process and redefine goals
Counseling as understanding and action:
Counseling as an action and understanding help clients understand and clarify their views of their life space, and to learn to reach their self-determined goals through meaning full, well-informed choices and through resolution or problems of an emotional or interpersonal nature. (Burks and Steffire, 1979)
2. Counseling as a relationship:
Counseling as a relationship help improve the way we relate to the people around us and break free of old patterns to realize our potential. It is usually an integral part of personal or individual work. Relate counselors provide a caring and supportive environment to help you find a way through any difficulties a client may be facing. 3. Counselling as skill and techniques:
Counseling as a skill/techniques involves basic skills including the patterns of sessions, active listening, body language, tone, open ended and closed questions, paraphrasing, summarizing, note taking, homework, other fun and informative techniques. Difference between counseling and guidance, psychology and active helping Counseling is defined as a planned and organized work aimed at assisting the trainee to...
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