Education Policies and Funding
Of the Federal Government
Political Science 1- 2624
June 30, 2014
Education policies are the principles and the government policy-making in educational sphere, as well as the collection of the laws and the rules that govern the operation of education systems. U.S. Department of Education, which is headed by the U.S. Secretary of Education, is a cabinet-level administrative organization created in 1979 that administers over 200 federal programs and collects and disseminates educational statistics. The Tenth amendment of the U.S. Constitution gives the reserved powers of the education to the states. Compared to 49 percent of education funding from the state government and 43 percent of education funding from the local government, 8 percent of education funding1 from the federal government is relatively small. However, federal government’s role in education has increased through history and is still increasing. The Congress of the United States, composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate, passes legislation under the “commerce” and “General Welfare” clauses to affect public education in the United States. Department of Education of the federal government plays role in U.S. education by funding the education resources, and enacting Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, No Child Left Behind Act, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and Higher Education Act.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act focuses on ensuring the education equality for the disabled students who are 0-21 years old. To the students with mental retardation, speech and language impairments, visual impairments, auditory impairments, orthopedic impairments, autism, severe emotional disturbance, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities, the Individual Education Program and Free Appropriate Public Education are provided. Through this act, parents become positively involved by agreeing with the proposal for their child and discussing the student’s services and placement. Education for All Handicapped Children, which replaced the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, was enacted in 1975 to allow more than one million disabled children to attend public school. Congress only contributed 18.5 percent funding to the special education, while it was originally supposed to support by funding 40 percent. From the underfunding of Congress, states face struggles trying to pay for the services needed for the services to...
Bibliography: Lisa Bass, “Education Funding & Public Schools,” eHow, http://www.ehow.com/info_7907355_education-funding-public-schools.html.
Michelle Diament, “White House Urged To Fully Fund IDEA,” disability scoop, last modified 18 Feb. 2014, http://www.disabilityscoop.com/2014/02/18/white-house-fund-idea/19120/.
National Conference of State Legislature, “School Vouchers,” http://www.ncsl.org/research/education/school-choice-vouchers.aspx.
Patrick McGuinn, No Child Left Behind and the Transformation of Federal Education Policy, 1965-2005, (Kansas: University Press of Kansas), 188.
Robert Morse, Diane Tolis, “Measuring Colleges’ Success Graduating Low- Income Students”, U.S. News, 17 Oct. 2013, http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/college-rankings-blog/2013/10/17/measuring-colleges-success-graduating-low-income-students.
Shawn Lindstrom, “2014-2015 Pell Grant Amount,” Student Loan Blog, last modified 10 Feb. 2014, http://www.estudentloan.com/blog/2014-2015-pell-grant-amount.
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