HEZBOLLAH (حزب الله)
A LOOK INTO THE HISTORY AND IDEOLOGY
OF A TERRORIST GROUP TURNED POLITICAL POWERHOUSE
DEAN M. KEMP
TERRORISM (ADJ 202)
DELAWARE COUNTY COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Hezbollah is also known as: Islamic Jihad, Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, Party of God, Revolutionary Justice Organization, and The Islamic Resistance. The name “Hezbollah” is Arabic, which translates to, “Party of God,” and whose name comes from a Koranic verse promising triumph to all those who join the Party of God. Shia clergymen founded Hezbollah in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley in 1982, with the goal of driving Israel from Lebanon, and establishing an Islamic state there. Hezbollah closely coordinated its efforts with Iran, and quickly became an effective fighting force thanks to the training, weapons, and funding of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps, who was operating in Lebanon at the time. Soon thereafter, Hezbollah began running training camps for not only its members, but for other terrorist organizations on how to conduct assassinations, kidnapping, suicide bombings, and guerilla warfare. In addition to Lebanon, Hezbollah’s security apparatus operates in parts of North and South America, Europe, East Asia, and other parts of the Middle East.
Hezbollah’s current goals include the establishment of a Shiite theocracy in Lebanon, the destruction of Israel, and the elimination of Western influences from the Middle East. Over the last twenty plus years, Hezbollah has not only professionalized its military capabilities but also joined Lebanon's political process and enmeshed itself into the social fabric of Lebanese society.
The ideological framework of Hezbollah was religious and pan-Islamic, regarding Khomeini and his successors as the source of authority. It aimed at the establishment of an Islamic regime in Lebanon. As such it considered the Lebanese government as illegitimate and worked toward its overthrow in a revolutionary act. Hezbollah’s Press Office made the following statement:
Hezbollah is an Islamic freedom fighting movement founded after the Israeli military seizure of Lebanon in 1982, which resulted in immediate formation of the Islamic resistance units for the liberation of the occupied territories and for the expulsion of the aggressive Israelis forces. In addition to shouldering the burden of resisting the Israelis occupation as it is stated by the international Bill of Human Rights, Hezbollah is also concerned about the presentation of Islam which addresses the mind, and reasons. Hezbollah is concerned about Presenting Islam that is confident of its fundamentals, its highly civilized understanding of Man, life and the universe, Islam as being self-assured about its capability to achieve the basis of right and justice. We are anxious to present Islam as being open hearted to all nations their various political and cultural trends and their numerous experiences, away from subjection or bewilderment. We are anxious to present Islam as being the guardian for human rights defining choices, adopting convictions and expressing them, socially. We opt for the formation of political pressure in education, pedagogy, medical case and other social benefits announced in the Bill of Human Rights. We are anxious to define the priorities for our cultural project that utilizes persuasiveness and polarization through the civilized and the human methods confirmed by the Bill of the Human Rights. Away from evidence force, and coercion. We are anxious to offer a model of performance in struggling targeting the enemy that represents a challenge for the existence of the whole nation along with its regimes and people. We also circumvent conflicts that do not serve the main aim, fighting the enemy, or that could create discord at the front, which is to be unified around the common interests. The hope is to rid of the pressuring threats...
Bibliography: Alagha, Joseph E. The Shifts in Hezbollah’s Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology, and Political Program - 2006
Azani, Eitan. Hezbollah: The Story of the Party of God, From Revolution to Institutionalization - 2009
Encyclopedia Britannica, Hezbollah
Available on-line at:
Global Terrorism Database, Terror Incidents
Available on-line at:
Hezbollah. “Statement of purpose.” Retrieved from the Hezbollah Official Website. Available on-line at: http://almashriq.hiof.no/lebanon/300/320/324/324.2/hizballah/statement01.html.
White, Jonathan R. Terrorism & Homeland Security 7th Edition - 2012
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