Culture is influential on the concept of self, specifically in relation to the independent and interdependent self. The article the learner has chosen provides evidence to support this claim. Keller (2002) asserts that the formation of the independent self and interdependent self are guided by cultural contexts and socialization, such as warmth and contingency, beginning in the early stages of human development. Keller (2002) hypothesizes that warmth and contingency experienced as infants establishes subsequent age-related duties and their accomplishments, are considered individual elements of child rearing, and are demonstrated through suitable cultural and contextual combinations. According to Keller (2002), these early experiences are the beginning of self-formation.
In Western culture, such as the American culture, the independent self-concept is dominant, while in non-Western culture, such as the Asian culture, the interdependent self-concept is dominant (Keller, 2002). The independent self emphasizes individuality and disconnection from conformity utilizing individual qualities removed from collective obligations (Keller, 2002). Here, accord and obligation is directed toward the individual and not to a group (Keller, 2002). The interdependent self emphasizes the collective connection and conformation between the individual and the group to which the individual belongs to (Keller, 2002). Here, the accord and obligation is directed towards the group and not the individual (Keller, 2002). Warmth is important for the interdependent self, and is defined by parenting styles that demonstrate physical affection, such as hugging and kissing, and non-physical affection, such as understanding and nurturing (Keller, 2002). Contingency is important for the independent self, and is defined by parenting styles, through teaching and reflection, that an individual’s actions have varying outcomes, which is directly associated the progression of beliefs (Keller, 2002)....
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